Infertility is the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. About 48 million couples and 186 million individuals are affected by infertility worldwide.
Causes of infertility are various and may be due to both male and/or female reproductive system issues.
Male infertility may be caused by abnormal sperm production, function and quality, blockage of the reproductive tract, infection or injury of the reproductive organs, overexposure to certain chemicals and radiation, including cigarette smoking, drugs and alcohol, hormonal disorders, cancer, including radiation and chemotherapy.
Female infertility may be caused by ovulation, uterine, tubal, ovaries or endocrine system disorders, cervical, uterine or cervical abnormalities, fallopian tube damage or blockage, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, cancer, including radiation and chemotherapy.